Gear Theory Tutorials & Guides

5 Largely Unknown Digital-Infrared Gems – By Dave Powell

August 3, 2022

For nearly a quarter century, I’ve tested every digital camera that crossed my path to see how well it handled infrared photography. Some didn’t pass muster, like my beloved Minolta DiMAGE A1. Its APO zoom lens’s optical design and internal coatings threw a bright “hot spot” into every IR photo. And the problem would have persisted even if I removed the camera’s “hot mirror” to allow hand-held infrared shooting.

But five happier finds were gems! Even today, they’d be affordable ways to explore digital IR before investing in more-expensive kit. There are probably other little-known gems out there, but here are five that I’ve actually used  (listed in order of decreasing resolution):

Panasonic Lumix ZS3/TZ7

Panasonic Lumix ZS3/TZ7 camera with IR filter attached

I recently converted this 10-megapixel camera to shoot infrared, just before my wife and I circumnavigated Iceland. The process was easy, and the camera performed beautifully. You can read more about it– and see five of its photos– in my first article for 35mmc. But here’s a sixth bonus image:

Iceland IR photo of a bridge spanning the rift between North American and Eurasian tectonic plates.

This 50-foot bridge in Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula spans one of the few places on earth where the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates meet on land, rather than under water. In Iceland, one can literally walk between North America and Europe in seconds… just stroll cross this bridge or the rift channel below it!

Minolta DiMAGE S414

Minolta S414 camera

Camera-wiki photo by Vagn Sloth-Madsen

This handsome 4-megapixel point-and-shoot was not only a great travel companion, but also one of the two cameras that gave me the most beautiful color interpretations of infrared wavelengths. While many IR cameras output garish pink, red, orange or purple tones, the S414 “saw” lovely browns, raspberry reds, and creamy whites. Here’s an unadulterated shot taken at the New England Botanic Garden at Tower Hill, in Boylston, Massachusetts:

Tower Hill Botanic Garden pavilion

I didn’t want to risk losing colors like these, and left the S414’s IR hot mirror in place. Nor did I mind the long resulting tripod exposures. Sadly, I killed the poor thing by pressing a too-tight IR filter holder onto the lens too often. And after a couple years, the camera stopped working. Lesson learned.

Nikon Coolpix 990

Nikon Coolpix 990 Camera wiith IR filter attached

This IR-converted, 3.34-megapixel, Nikon Coolpix 990 isn’t exactly unknown to IR fans. But it’s a true gem whose CCD sensor translates infrared wavelengths into gorgeous “antiquarian” blacks, ruddy browns, teals and whites like the ones below– captured on a cloudy Paris day, only a few years before Notre Dame’s terrible fire:

IR photo of Notre Dame in Paris (before its tragic fire)

As with the Minolta S414, I rarely converted Coolpix 990 photos to monochrome. Nor did I “colorize” the above image in any way.

TIP: You won’t usually see an infrared camera’s output at its best until you spread its R/G/B-channel histograms across their full tonal ranges, using a photo editor’s Levels command. That’s all I did to the above file.

The 990 has a couple weaknesses, though:

• Strong pressure from installed AA batteries often breaks the battery-door latch. Before buying this camera  (or its Coolpix 995 sibling), always confirm that the latch still holds batteries in their compartment! The photo below shows how I used a piece of scrap metal, the threaded knob from an old leather ready-case, and the 990’s own tripod mount to keep its battery door shut.  (And yes, I could have just taped it closed, but where’s the fun in that?)
• The 990’s second problem is a rear LCD that’s virtually unusable on sunny days. Some creative hacksawing and Dremeling allowed me to attach the back of a cheap plastic slide viewer to the camera (using white double-stick mounting tape, as also shown below). This setup both shades and magnifies the LCD… making it much easier to frame and review shots.  (TIP: Try this with other digicams’ small LCDs!):

Coolp[ix 990 camera with screen shade and battery door closure

This circa-2000 camera may be low-res, and my customizations made it a tad awkward to hang around my neck. But I still use it for those wonderful CCD tones!  In fact, just before Covid hit Europe, the camera accompanied my wife and me to Venice [article coming soon].

Olympus C-2100UZ (Ultra Zoom)

Olympus C-2100UZ camera kit

The  2.1-megapixel Olympus C-2020Z is a well-known IR gem  (which doesn’t need converting for hand-held shooting). But I’ve never owned one. Instead, I happened across this long-nosed cousin: the C-2100UZ (Ultra Zoom). Both cameras use the same sensor, but the 2100UZ’s sits behind a stabilized, 38-380mm (equivalent), f/2.8-3.5 lens.

Here’s one of its IRs:

C-2100UZ IR photo

The camera’s two biggest drawbacks are the necessity of using a tripod when shooting infrareds with the lens zoomed, and its use of SmartMedia cards (which can be pricey and hard-to-find today).

Still, it’s a great travel companion because of the excellent 10x zoom… and the fact that one can simply hold an IR filter up in front of the lens (at any zoom setting) to switch from visible-light to Infrared shooting!

But if you fear that 2.1 megapixels might be too few for making decent prints, consider our last affordable gem– the humble, unassuming:

Polaroid PDC-700

Polaroid PDC-700 camera with IR filter attached

Before Polaroid declared bankruptcy in 2001, I wrote the user manuals for its PDC line of mass-market digitals. One day, I asked the company’s development engineer if any of their digicams were good for infrared. He recommended the PDC-700.

I brought it to the New England Botanic Garden at Tower Hill  (mentioned earlier), with an infrared bandpass filter attached via double-stick mounting tape (as in the above photo). The camera was so IR-sensitive that I could even shoot from moving vehicles and at odd angles. I sat on the ground to capture these Tower Hill steps:

PDC-700 IR photo of Tower Hill Botanic Garden staircase

After seeing the photos, the folks at Tower Hill offered me an exhibit, which I called “The Invisible Garden.”  The Boston Globe newspaper reviewed it favorably, and I sold a few 8×10 and 16×20 exhibit prints.

But that’s really quite astonishing, considering that it all resulted from a 0.8-megapixel camera!  Put in perspective, when I first sent the camera’s original image file to my Epson printer, the printout was less than an inch tall! So how could I sell 8×10 and 16×20 enlargements? Three things made it possible:

• In Photoshop, I first converted PDC-700 source files to 32-bit mode. The higher data resolution smoothed the “tone banding” and “image breakup” that would have occurred during my extreme upscaling.  (I dropped the enlarged images back to 8-bit mode for printing.)
• Also, most people accept some softness and “glow” as part of the “infrared look.”  (Plus, the camera’s low resolution actually contributed nice film-like “grain.”)
• And third, my vastly enlarged prints held up well because people tended to view them from farther away than they would smaller prints.

A 12×18 print still anchors my gallery wall and draws visitors’ attention.  It also constantly reminds me that camera specs aren’t as important as what the photographer does with them.

All Still Usable!

If you’d like to explore digital infrared, it doesn’t need to cost a lot! Consider starting with a Polaroid PDC-700, Olympus C-2020Z/C-2100UZ, or Minolta DiMAGE S414. As I write this, they all sell on eBay for under $40. You could also convert a Nikon Coolpix 990, but it still commands into three figures (for an unconverted unit). You may have to wait for a bargain! (Another well-known IR gem is Minolta’s 5.2-megapixel DiMAGE 7. I’ve never used one, but have read that it’s better for IR shooting than the later 7i model.)

However, the best buy of all may be Panasonic’s 10-megapixel Lumix ZS3/TZ7.  It is compact, sports a stabilized 12x Leica zoom, and also sells for under $40. Sometimes, well under! And, as described in my earlier article, you can IR-convert it yourself!

TIP: And if you’d (initially) like to avoid buying an expensive IR bandpass filter, try stretching one or two pieces of black yard-bag plastic (or holding a developed black slide) in front of your camera’s lens. The results will be soft and dark, but you’ll soon know if you’d like to delve deeper into our dramatic infrared world.

–Dave Powell is a Westford, Mass. writer and avid amateur photographer.

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14 Comments

  • Reply
    Dan Mountin
    August 3, 2022 at 3:30 pm

    I agree with your assessment of the Lumix and the ease of converting it. What a gem!

    I recently converted a Lumix ZS8, a younger sibling to the ZS3 but with 14mp and 16x zoom. Bought a boxed, almost new example for $40 on an auction site. Spent an hour total converting it following a video online. Easy peasy!

    I couldn’t be more delighted and the results have exceeded even my modest expectations! Full spectrum. No focus issues. Can be used hand held. Because I’m using an external IR pass filter, I can still swap and use an IR cut filter for “normal” photos. All in, the camera with IR pass filter cost less than $75!!

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 3, 2022 at 6:40 pm

      Thanks so much Dan! You make an extremely good point: That in front of the lens, you can put an external version of the internal IR “cut” filter that you removed… and the camera will then shoot normal visible-light photos. In my article, I had intended to mention that, and include a sample normal photo taken with the same camera, but I couldn’t find my cut filter. Am still looking for it!

      I’m so glad you raised that point. Also, good on you for doing your own conversion… and at such a great price!

  • Reply
    Tim Bradshaw
    August 3, 2022 at 8:41 pm

    I think I may be confused (well, OK, I know I’m confused but I think I am confused about a new thing…).

    I had assumed that to use a digital camera for IR you usually needed to spend lots of money to have filters removed. But I think what you’re saying is that you really only need to do this if you want it to be reasonably fast: if you’re happy for it to have some really minute effective ISO, you can often just strap an IR filter to the lens, put it on a tripod, and use it. Is that right?

    I’m asking because I have an ancient Minolta Dimage Xg which I have been loth to throw away and I might have just found a use for it!

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 3, 2022 at 9:53 pm

      Hi Tim… You are correct! And it’s actually wise to try slower, tripod-based, test IRs with any unconverted camera before deciding whether to convert it. This would reveal any “IR hot spots,” that would make the camera unsuitable for infrared shooting.

      As mentioned in the article, I didn’t convert the Minolta S414 because its “native” IR colors were so nice. And everywhere it went, a tripod came along. One great advantage of NOT converting it was that I could simply remove the IR filter to shoot in normal light again!

      I don’t blame you for holding onto your Xg! It has a beautiful, compact form factor. And at 3.2 megapixels, it’s so close to digital-IR’s “Unconverted Goldilocks Zone” that it might do well without converting. So definitely, strap a filter on the camera, put it on a tripod, and (on a sunny day) see what happens.

      And when you do, post another comment to let us know!

  • Reply
    Toby Van de Velde
    August 4, 2022 at 8:24 am

    Thanks Dave, this is very interesting.
    I’d be keen to read about your post process workflow with your IR work.
    Have you got an article about this please?
    I have a D90 converted to 720mm and always open to new processing methods.
    Toby.

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 5, 2022 at 6:10 pm

      A great idea Toby… Thanks! I’m just about to submit a next article for Hamish’s review… and will then start a workflow piece! Some things about that are unique to IR work, but my general workflow is pretty basic… and the piece should be ready for Hamish’s eyes by month’s end. I love hearing ideas for articles… so thanks again!

  • Reply
    Ben Garcia
    August 4, 2022 at 9:42 pm

    As a fan of gear tinkering and ‘abnormal’ film photography techniques, your posts check all the boxes for me, Dave!

    So if I was to test a camera, which filter (frequency-wise) should I try?

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 5, 2022 at 7:26 pm

      Hi Ben! I think I just accidentally deleted my response… so I’ll try again.

      I’m glad you’re also a fan of gear tinkering and odd techniques. Keep watching this space… for more to come!

      Regarding your filter question, I’d recommend one with a cut frequency of 720nm. Depending on manufacturer, they’re usually labeled “720,” “R72,” or “89b.” They admit just a little visible light… to produce nicely colorful images that convert well to black-and-white.

      These files can at times produce interesting “color-channel-swapping” results… Where (in one’s photo editor) you swap the data between two channels for dramatic effect. (This is often done between a photo’s red and blue channels.)

      So a 720/R72/89b filter would seem to give you many creative options!

  • Reply
    Eric
    August 4, 2022 at 9:47 pm

    Great article. I have a SIGMA sd Quattro and just got around to ordering a visible light cut filter (to use after I take out the camera’s removable IR filter) so I could try IR photography and it arrives tomorrow. After reading this and seeing your sample images I am very much looking forward to trying it out. Thank you.

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 5, 2022 at 6:17 pm

      You are very welcome Eric! After you do, please post another comment about how it went. Or… send Hamish an illustrated article! The Quattro whould make for an interesting piece.

      • Reply
        Eric
        August 6, 2022 at 11:03 pm

        First Infrared experience went well. Wrote a blog post about it and will likely submit an article to Hamish as you have suggested. Thank you again for your post.

        • Reply
          Dave Powell
          August 8, 2022 at 7:28 pm

          I’m so glad, Eric… and look forward to seeing your article!

  • Reply
    Keith Devereux
    August 9, 2022 at 1:40 pm

    This is an excellent post, Dave. I have an Outlet Box of perfectly usable vintage digital cameras and I was wondering whether I should convert any to IR. I think you have given me the answer! Thank you.

    • Reply
      Dave Powell
      August 9, 2022 at 6:00 pm

      You are very welcome Keith… That’s great to hear! Definitely search online for written and/or video instructions about IR-converting each camera…. and tell us about the results. Also, pay special attention to the cameras with CCD sensors. They are often very popular due to CCDs’ special color renditions.

      And as I mentioned in another comment reply, get yourself a 720/R72/89b bandpass/cutoff filter, mount each camera on a tripod on a sunny day, hold the filter in front of its lens, and shoot some test IRs before doing any conversions. This will show you which cameras won’t work… because of IR Hot Spots… and which can generate wonderful colors without any conversion.

      And before buying a filter, check the diameters of your cameras’ lenses, and get a filter large enough to cover each of ’em.

      Best of luck with your project box!!

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