Homemade Rapid Fixer
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Grocery Store Development – Part 3: Fixing Film with Pool Chemicals and Fertilizer – By Josh Vickers

June 10, 2022

Fixer is both cheap and abundant, which is great for those of us that enjoy developing our own negatives. However, in the search for local alternatives for film development, it presented a problem. Because it’s so easy to acquire, few have bothered to try making it themselves.

This is not to say that no one has; in fact, there is an active community of folks that buy and mix their own chemicals and achieve a high degree of nuanced control over their results. But ordinarily, they buy from reputable photography suppliers and not from the supermarket.

My experimentation with reversal processing and developing had opened my eyes to the possibility of the individual chemical components of developing chemistry being available from unintuitive sources. Potassium Bromide, a common development restrainer, could be found in anticonvulsant medication for dogs. All I had to do was find out what the chemicals were, and I could start searching for alternatives.

My posts within the Vintage Camera Users Facebook group had happily stimulated some insightful conversations about developing methods. In particular, I was given a basic formula for Orwo 300 developer by photographer Kyle Ablett, which calls for only 2 ingredients: sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfite. Photographer Richard A. Novak added that the sodium sulfite typically acts as a stabilizer for reusable fixers, and that it could be omitted for a one-shot fixer. Moreover, photographer Daniel Keating explained that you could add ammonium sulfate to the mixture and create a rapid fixer.

I brainstormed with the group on different ways one could source the materials locally. If your supermarket has pool dechlorinator made of pure sodium thiosulfate, you already have everything you need to make a fixer (and it’s also available in pool supply shops and even pet stores). But there were many options. Ammonium sulfate is used as a fertilizer and can be found at nurseries and some hardware stores. Sodium sulfite can be found at pool supply shops (also as dechlorinator), at sporting goods stores (as bait or fish egg cure), and at home-brewing shops (as a fermentation stopper).

The list was surprisingly long, and the ways to combine them were various. This was a very exciting prospect, as I could test different combinations, and different available products, to see what could be viable for this project.

At the end of the day, I returned home with:

  • Sodium Thiosulfate 
    • Suncoast Chlorine Neutralizer 
    • Tetra AquaSafe Plus Aquarium Water Conditioner 
    • Aqueon Aquarium Water Conditioner 
  • Sodium Sulfite 
    • Leslie’s Chlor Neutralizer 
  • Aqueous Thiosulfate 
    • Taylor R-0007 Thiosulfate N/10 
  • Ammonium Sulfate 
    • Hi-Yield Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer 

For the tests, I used the ratios provided for Orwo 300 to create a solution of all the products in 20ml of water, each in a corresponding petri dish. As a control, I made a fresh solution of Kodak Profession Fixer, which had been my go-to fixer for B&W photography. A small piece of film was placed in the petri dish containing the mix to be tested, all at 20 C / 68 F. I used a stopwatch to monitor clearing times, comparing to the control. I noted these times, along with the chemicals and amounts, in the following table:

Results of various fixer options

Results of various fixer options

Though not everything worked, I was incredibly pleased with the results. That anything worked at all, and was within miles of my house, was a thrill.

But the potential for the homemade rapid fixer was tantalizing. I had never used a rapid fixer before, and seeing the film clear in seconds was a magical experience. I had to try and make a shelf-stable (and clean) batch. I mixed more of ammonium sulfate and sodium thiosulfate, and I added sodium sulfite. After mixing, I filtered the mixture though a coffee filter with excellent results. A quick test confirmed that the clearing time was still about 30 seconds.

At that moment, I realized that I had everything I needed to develop and fix film right in front of me. I could test it. I had to test it.

I hastily snapped a few photos with my K1000 and ran to my bathroom to develop the negatives. I knew my caffenol ratio and times would work, but something about the rapid fixer had me skeptical. Something would go wrong at higher volumes, or with more film, of the fixer was incredibly short-lived. I had never fixed film for less than 7 minutes, and 1 minute felt entirely insufficient. But I had done the tests, and I trusted to my experiments.

When I pulled out the developed negatives, I laughed outloud. Using pool chemicals and fertilizer, I’d made a photographic fixer that was 83.3% faster than what I had been using up until that moment. I did a full-on Doc Brown and yelled, “It works! IT WORKS!”

Homemade developer and its constituent parts

Asahi Pentax K1000, Fomapan 400, developed using the ingredients pictured.

Homemade Rapid Fixer and its constituent parts

Asahi Pentax K1000, Fomapan 400, developed using the ingredients pictured.

Here is what I used to make the rapid fixer:

1L water
200g Sodium Thiosulfate
100g Ammonium Sulfate
20g Sodium Sulfite

Mix thoroughly and filter through a paper filter. Fix for 1 minute.

I maintain that I can go just about anywhere (in the US, anyway) and be able to pick up the ingredients to develop, fix, and even reverse process B&W films, inexpensively and quickly. And I hope that, someday, I get a chance to say, “Hey, do you want to see something cool?” and be the coolest uncle ever.

_josh vickers

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10 Comments

  • Reply
    William Watts
    June 10, 2022 at 10:30 am

    I have a question, the chemicals described are commercial grade, off the shelf branded products. Are they pure? ie 100% only the chemical required or do they have other chemicals mixed in with them so the actual product may only be say 80% the actual chemical that is required.
    In the past, I have tried a similar approach when processing PCBs but usually found that the alternative chemicals did not work due to not being pure.

    • Reply
      Josh Vickers
      June 10, 2022 at 11:00 am

      It certainly wouldn’t hurt for them to be lab grade. But I can’t imagine that the commercial products are held to that standard. In particular the dirty ammonium sulfate. I ran the mixture through a coffee filter for peace of mind, and to prevent the chance that some sediment might scratch the emulsion. But I have not used another fixer since making this one, just due to how astoundingly effective it is.

  • Reply
    Steven G
    June 10, 2022 at 11:48 am

    Marvellous!

  • Reply
    Martin JONES
    June 10, 2022 at 2:32 pm

    As part of a green photography push I’ve been experimenting with sodium thiosulphate as a one shot fixer (it degrades quickly as a simple solution). How stable are you finding your rapid fixer recipe? Storage requirements? Keep up the good work 👍

    • Reply
      Josh Vickers
      June 10, 2022 at 2:38 pm

      Thank you! I’ve been using it exclusively since the initial experiment and haven’t seen any degradation yet (probably due to the addition of the sodium sulfite). Luckily, once I do, it’s pretty easy to remake. I’ve been storing it in the dark plastic bottle in the photos.

  • Reply
    Vlad Serebryany
    June 13, 2022 at 4:25 pm

    The whole quest for chems in a garden supply store reminds me of wonderful short story by Frederick Forsyth “Money with Menaces” , where protagonist was visiting that sort of stores as well 😉 – I will not provide any spoilers – just read the story .

  • Reply
    manelxy
    July 23, 2022 at 11:19 am

    Common salt can also be used as a fixative.
    150 g NaCl
    500ml water
    It takes a bit to get it to dissolve well. Lots of stirring and hot water are a big help.
    It is not a quick fixer. You may need hours (depending on the film up to 24 hours).

    https://caffenolcolor.blogspot.com/search?q=salt+fixer

    • Reply
      Josh Vickers
      July 23, 2022 at 1:34 pm

      I’d heard about this from a few sources, but saw about equal responses that it was mythical, or had varied success. That link has more experimental conclusions than I had seen, though. That’s great info. Definitely a good option in a pinch, then!

  • Reply
    Arne Heeringa
    July 24, 2022 at 2:31 pm

    See the very old article by Lloyd Erlick about mixing Ansell Adams plain fixer from bulk chemicals. He used the pool and fruit stuff too. Here the pool stuff is more expensive, so I use the chemicals.

    I also develop with wine, sekt and beer. And I made Parodinal that works exactly like Rodinal.

    • Reply
      Josh Vickers
      July 25, 2022 at 1:23 pm

      Parodinal is tough to beat. It’s been my go-to developer for a few months now, when I’m not experimenting with something crazy. It’s not expensive or hard to make, and it is unquestionably effective.

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