Konica TC and T4 SLRs – The Last of the Steam Powered Trains

Back in the 1970s competition in the SLR camera market was fierce. Most companies needed to innovate regularly to maintain their profile and market share. Konica had been building up their Autoreflex system for some years. With the T3 they had produced a camera that did pretty much everything and was backed by a highly respectable system. However, there was still a need to keep up with trends and innovate.

A new entry level camera

Like many other manufacturers, Konica produced an ‘entry level’ model. These cheaper models generally (but not always) lost the top shutter speed. They also tended to lack a depth of field preview and a self-timer.

Konica’s original entry level line was the ‘Autoreflex A’ series. It was the same basic body as the T, but lacked the 1/1000 shutter speed, the shutter speeds in the viewfinder, depth-of-field stop down, self-timer and double exposure switch.

Konica’s innovation for the mid 1970s was prompted by what Olympus had done a few years earlier. It was to be a smaller, lighter camera than the (weighty) T3. It was also intended as an ‘entry level’ model. For their new camera they produced a smaller body, using a newly available compact version of the Copal Square shutter. Another innovation was to make the top and bottom plates out of a high quality engineering plastic.


With any of these entry level models, it was important to differentiate. This was a typical entry level camera in that it lacked a depth of field preview, but it did feature a self-timer and a 1/1000 top shutter speed. Like the ‘A’ cameras before it, it also lacked an indication of shutter speed in the viewfinder and double exposure switch from the T3. No battery check means you have to keep an eye on the needle in the viewfinder to make sure there is still power. The other main ‘economy’ was that it lacked speeds below 1/8, with a range from 1/1000-1/8 plus B. There are not many photographers who will miss the speeds from ¼-1 second.

The camera was called the Autoreflex TC (‘T Compact’) in most markets, but was marketed in Japan as the A-Com 1 (‘A-Compact’).

For a time the T3n and TC were marketed side-by-side. This is an early TC as it sports the old-style upper-case KONICA logo. Note the relocation of the lens release button from the bottom to the top of the mount. Konica had plans for that space…

It was somewhat of a hit. At one time it claimed to be the lightest 35 mm SLR (even in comparison to the Pentax ME, which initially had a brass top-plate). Finished in black, it was affordable and it looked the part. It sold very well.

Pushing the concept up a level

The next logical move was to use this more modern form-factor for the top-flight camera. Two years after the release of the TC, the T4 combined the silhouette of the TC with the features of the T3.

New camera, new logo. Note the placement of the depth of field preview control for operation by the left hand. This particular camera has had the ‘leathers’ under the Autoreflex engraving replaced. I may document this sometime if I ever get over the trauma…

One of the features that the T3 lacked compared to top end cameras from other manufacturers was a motor drive or autowinder. For some reason, people really wanted to race through their 36 frames at a rate of knots. As the producer of Sakura film, Konica must have quite liked this trend. The T4 took an autowinder. It bolted onto the (metal) base of the T4, and it enabled you to run through a whole roll of film in around 20 seconds.

It is a nice autowinder, and they designed in bars to allow for use of an over-the-hand strap, but…

The T4 has a full range of speeds from 1-1/1000. It has a depth of field preview. It even has a bullet-proof multiple exposure switch like the T3. Its battery check was also easier to use than the one on the T3. However, like the TC, it lacked the indicator of the set shutter speed in the viewfinder.

Common features

Both of these Autoreflex cameras feature a pookie plastic body covering, which does not age well. This material will be familiar to users of the Minolta XD cameras. An industry for the supply of replacement leathers has grown up in their wake. Both cameras take mercury-based PX625 batteries, although you can get away with fitting Zinc-Air 675 replacements.

Left: Shrinking plastic coverings as seen on the front of the T4. That irregular-shaped piece with three separate cutouts can be very frustrating to replace. Right: The back of the T4. These large regular-shaped areas also show shrinkage but don’t tend to be as susceptible to peeling. Also visible is the switch to turn the meter off. On the T4 holding this switch in while operating the wind-on cocks the shutter without moving the film, allowing intentional multiple exposures with perfect registration.

Weight and handling are good. The meter switch, built into the wind-on lever is a very neat design. You pull it out to turn the meter on and the lever only parks back on the body when you press the button to switch it off. You just don’t tend to leave the meter switched on accidentally. Both cameras feature impressively sized pressure plates to keep the film nice and flat.

The TC (top) and T4. Same concept but with some subtle differences. Note the battery check button, bigger shutter release and re-styled pentaprism housing of the T4.

T4 Issues

The T4 is a good camera, but in comparison to the T3 it is a little disappointing. It never sold in anything like the numbers that the TC did. It went out of production a clear two years before the TC.

Depth of field preview

The T3 incorporated an exposure lock into the first action of the depth of field preview lever, so the meter traps the needle determining aperture and then closes the lens down to that f-stop.

Like the models prior to the T3, the T4 lacks that initial exposure lock. It will either close the lens down fully (to f/16 or f/22 depending on the lens), or to the value set on the aperture ring of the lens. This makes getting a quick idea of depth of field much more complex. You have to take the camera off automatic, set a value and then operate the control before returning to automatic exposure.

There is an alternative technique, but this involves a half press on the shutter release to lock the exposure in auto, followed by operating the depth of field preview with the other hand. Operation is a bit awkward.

Autowinder exposure functionality

Although it has a very nice autowinder, the trap needle exposure used in the Autoreflexes will lock exposure to the first frame in a sequence. A fresh meter reading is only taken when you lift your finger off the shutter release. This is a bit limiting.

Last gasp outsourcing

After the T4, Konica switched away from trap-needle exposure, towards electronic shutters and metering that suited autowinders better (these were often built-in). However, the last SLR camera that Konica released with the AR mount was a step back to the TC specification – three years after the earlier camera had been withdrawn. The TC-X had trap needle metering and a mechanical shutter. It also featured DX coding and drew power from an AA or AAA battery (the copy I have takes a single AAA). The TC-X was manufactured by Cosina for Konica. It is reputed to have been the first all plastic SLR. In addition to the outer covers (usually top and bottom, but with the TC-X, front and rear), the underlying frame is plastic.

Cosina are a highly able company, and they are capable of producing great stuff. However, this is a camera built to a budget. Build quality is not really comparable to the earlier Konica SLRs, but is better than, for instance, the (higher specced and more capable) Praktica BX20.

Several years had passed and Konica had yet another logo. This was simply screen printed onto the body. Across the top of the camera you can see the seam where the front and rear sections of the body join. The earlier ‘leathers’ problem was solved by not covering the plastic body with anything.

Everything is a bit of a step-down from the original TC. The plastics are cheaper. The viewfinder display is more basic and doesn’t play nicely with wide lenses, where the aperture scale tends to go dark, making the meter needle difficult to see. The on-off switch is not as clever a design. The shutter release doesn’t have as good a feel. The self-timer is a bit cheap and nasty and the flash synch is slower. However the batteries are easier and cheaper to source and the little grip on the right of the body makes the camera easier to hold.

Pictures – Konica TC

Macro shot
Urban fox
Splash of light at Eltham Palace
Shadows on a grain silo

Pictures – Konica T4

Razorwire near the Thames path
Hump-backed footpath
Derelict piers
Duxford Thunderbolt

Pictures – Konica TC-X

Masts and rigging of the Cutty Sark. The TC-X is still quite capable and takes the exact same lenses as the other two. What it doesn’t bring with it is the same feeling of confidence.
The gates of the Old Naval College at Greenwich
Pleated blind.


Both the original Konica TC and the Konica T4 are great cameras to use. The trap-needle exposure-lock-on-initial-press used on all the Autoreflexes is very easy to use effectively. Given the limitations of the T4’s depth of field preview and autowinder, I’d suggest that the original TC gives pretty much as good an experience unless you really want to shoot at 1-1/4 of a second, or be profligate with film. The TC-X is OK as long as you don’t want to use lenses wider than 40 mm, but is nowhere near as nice to use as the other two. As I have the T4, I will use it whenever the T3 seems inappropriate.

The end

Konica abandoned SLR manufacture in 1987, but carried on producing compacts and got heavily into mini-labs. In the early days of the new millennium they merged with Minolta and then got out of cameras and film entirely in 2006 to concentrate on copiers and business machines.

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11 thoughts on “Konica TC and T4 SLRs – The Last of the Steam Powered Trains”

  1. Thanks for the in depth informative review! I am completely unfamiliar with Konica cameras so thank you!!
    The photos are wonderful, lovely delicate tones. The play of light in the window and the banisters I really liked a lot and the fox photo is fantastic

    1. I love the hump-backed bridge and the old pilings in the river. Nice work! I’m surprised the Konica stopped SLR sales in 1987. I thought they continued into the 1990s, but I did not pay attention back in the day because I was using other brands. A friend at work said their lenses were top grade.

      1. The lenses (primes at least, some 70s zooms were a bit ‘iffy’) were very good. I wish I’d picked up more second hand AuroReflex lenses when they were cheap on eBay – because of the short registration distance they were difficult to adapt to digital until mirrorless cameras came out.

    2. Thank you.
      Back in the 70s there seemed to be a wealth of camera brands – Konica were one of the ‘second tier’ companies which didn’t have a lot of brand recognition in comparison to Nikon, Canon, Minolta and Pentax. However, those other brands did still manage to produce some great cameras..

      1. As the 70′ transformed into the 80s I had worked at a couple of big camera stores on the west coast (USA) Brooks cameras in the SF bay area and Ed’s in Tacoma.
        Some camera buyers knew what they wanted and that’s what they got, but there was another group moving into their first real camera system that asked a lot of questions. You could generally tell if they were more concerned about features and reputation, or were price sensitive.
        My memory of those days is a little hazy, but I think I remember a basic Konica set (camera and one lens) being about 20% cheaper than one of the big brands….maybe more like 30% cheaper than Nikon.
        Konica did most of what any first time ICL camera owner would need, but they did feel a little cheap when compared side by side. For buyers more serious about photography, Konica didn’t have the same upgrade path as a Nikon, Canon, Minolta , Olympus etc. Of course, most users would never go down this path, but it did have the allure of seeing working pros using the same system. I think that same dynamic exists to this day.

  2. Really enjoyed the atmospheric shots of South East London, Bob, and a great write-up of these overlooked cameras – I love the compactness of the TC-X, which I use as a ‘Sunny 16’ camera (the light meter on mine has seen better days). I stand to be corrected, but I don’t think there’s a smaller 35mm film SLR set up than the Konica TC-X with the brilliant Hexanon 40mm f/1.8 pancake lens. Unfortunately my particular copy of the Autoreflex TC (which came attached to the 40mm) doesn’t work properly (winding on fires the shutter) – which is a pity as it does indeed seem to be a really nice camera.

    1. The TC is well worth a few quid if you get the chance of a working one. I stress that the TC-X is a perfectly good camera, but the build quality does pale against the original TC.
      The automatic firing sounds like the problem that I’ve found on the T3, where the ring controlling the diaphragm doesn’t quite return to its starting place – will it work OK if you try winding on while the lens is off the camera (not a practical way forward, but a way of diagnosing the problem…)

      1. Thanks for the suggestion Bob – the problem seems to persist without a lens, so it looks like this one’s destined to be a “Spares or Repair’, but then I guess it was a sort of incidental purchase after all…

    2. Thank you so much for your very kind offer – much as I might be a better photographer with working TC-X, I’m actually finding the absence of a light meter lends a sort of enjoyable randomness to the process! I’m also more of an occasional manual focus photographer (the Minolta Dynax gets more use), and I don’t think I could give the TC-X the mileage it would rightly deserve.

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